Daniel Smith's Journal (1779-1780)
Journal of Daniel Smith (1779-1780)
Daniel Smith Journal, Wisconsin State Historical Society
In 1779, with other surveyors and adventurers from Virginia and North Carolina, Daniel Smith and Thomas Walker set out to extend the Virginia-North Carolina boundary line far beyond the Cumberland Gap. From August 1779 until August 1780, the men traveled from southern Virginia, to the Falls of the Ohio River, and back to Virginia. In addition to their survey duties, the men worked secretly for Thomas Jefferson, meeting with George Rogers Clark at the Falls of the Ohio River to scout locations for the planned Fort Jefferson.
Saturday Augut 14th, 1779. Having for a few days been making ready to go out with the Commissioners of the Line between this state and North Carolina as a Surveyor of the same according to my former agreement with Dor. Walker, this day I sat off and reach'd the Elk-Garden.
Sunday 15th. Got to Capt. Dysarts where I met with Dor. Walker who acquainted me that I was appointed a Commissioner in the Room of Mr. Jas. Madison.
Monday 16th. got my Ball & Socket mended at Andw. Kinkennon's.
Tuesday 17th. went to Court, and lodged at Mr. Willoughby's.
Wednesday 18th. Went to John Keys's on the Laurel Fork, being the nearest house to our place of beginning that we knew of.
Thursday 19th. Rain last night, and to day-rais'd the River so that we could not travel till M
Monday 23rd. moved to a Camp on Col. Donelson's Line about 7 miles west of the white topp'd mountain.
Tuesday 24th. Having from some accounts of late togetherwith Col. Fry's and Jefferson's map of the line, got an opinion that Col. Donelson did not begin where Fry & Jefferson left off to day I went towards Donelson's beginning to endeavor to trace up the old line taking with me Jas. Michie one of the Surveyors. When I got within about a mile of the same found the old line and began to trace it up. lay in the Mountain which divides New River Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Thomas Hutchins (1778) Lewis Evans (1755) waters from Holston Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) .
Wednesday 25th. got back to camp.
August 26th. this morning the distance Col.
Donelson's line was south of the old one was measured along a line making a right angle with the old one-52 poles. The course of the old line by Compass not allowing for Variation was N 88° 30' W. the distance was measured along a course S 1° 30' W. This day we moved to Tooley's river Maps:
Thomas Jefferson (1786)
and encamp'd just above the little flag meadow, south of the
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line about a mile.
Friday 27th. moved to a Waste Cabin on Steep Rock Cr Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) about three quarters of a mile North of the place where the line would strike out.
Saturday 28th This morning Mr. Michie came to camp with out ever having seen the line since he parted from us yesterday altho' he had carefully continued the same course.
Sunday 29th a Number of us went and searched about the creek near the place Mr. Michie struck it for the line and could not find it, altho the place seemed by the Indian Camp &c. to be the place where the old line struck it.
Monday 30th this evening went to the top of a mountain, eastward to adjust the Quadrant and take the Variation of the needle-it look'd likely for rain, and I came back to camp. Rain all night.
Tuesday 31st lay still waiting for the Carolina Commissioners.
Wednesday 1st Sept. This morning Major Wm. Bailey Smith a Commissioner from Carolina came to our Camp. and this evening Col. John Williams and Col. Richd Henderson the other Commissioners joined.
Thursday 2d Sept. Proposed to the Carolina Gent. to go back to where we knew the old line was and trace it up. They said they would give us an answer next morning.
Friday 3d. They told us that as to keep in Latitude 36' 30" (sic) was the main object, thought it better to go and search for the line, there take the Latitude if we found it and begin, if right to run the west line at that place, if we could not find it, it would be best to go to some mountain proper for Observation and by that run from the place of observation North or South till we were right, this was agreed to.
Saturday 4th. Went to the Top of a Mountain south westerly from our camp about 6 miles.
Sunday 5th Observed by my instrument the Sun's meridian altitude to be 60" 14. after making the proper deduction &c. for refraction. Declination &c. the latitude we were in was 36° 31' 25".
To day the Sun's Meridian altitude was by my Instrument 59° 52', which made the latitude exactly the same with yesterday their Instrument likewise agreed with ours, therefore we agreed we
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were 1' 25" north of the line which when we reduced into superficial measure we made 1 mile 201 poles and an half. we agreed that we were here in longitude 81° 12' West of London. That Cape Henry Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) was 75° 27' 20" West of London. that Curratuck Inlet Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) was 75° 30' West of London. That in superficial measure we were at steep rock creek Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) 329 miles west of Curratuck Inlet Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) , we made an abatement for mountainous grounds and uneven measure of 12 miles to this place or that we were 317 miles west of Curratuck Inlet Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) . and settled the difference of longitude between Curratuck Inlet Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) and this place to be 5° 42' a degree of longitude in this Latitude 48.23 Ge: miles or of Statute miles 55 & 1083 Yards. This evening by a magnetic line 52° 30' E. the above distance of 1 mile and 201 1-2 poles was measured.
Tuesday 7th 14 poles more than the 1 mile & 201 1-2 po. was measured on the South line from that place we began the marked line by running N 88 E on their Compass to steep rock cr. Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) 2 po. thence from the place we first began to measure on their Compass S 88W [blank in Ms.] po. to the top of a spur. here Col. Henderson and my Self went to them having settled the Var. at 3 degrees East on my Compass & 2 1-2° on theirs. and directed the surveyors to make this allowance. Vid. plat of Steep Rock Cr Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) . for the place of beginning
Wednesday 8th. The Latitude being settled, and the Surveyors set properly to work it was thought I might go home for a few days without Injury to the Service, and I accordingly sat off. Lay this night at Mr. Logans-lost my Horse, but got home on Thursday on a Borrowed one which I returnd on Saturday. Stay'd at Home till
Monday 13th. Sat off in the rain, lay at T. Price's.
Tuesday 14th North fork H[igh] but got across it and lay at Mr. Finleys,
Wednesday 15th got to the Surveyors about one o'clock where I was informed the Carolina Gentlemen had conceived an Opinion we were too far to the south of the true L. Much Cloudy weather this week. After many Observations, we concluded we were right, and I sat off Wednesday 22d. for the Island where I had reason to believe Dor. Walker was waiting with as much impatience with a Party of the Cherokee Indians as I had been the last week. Lay at Cornelius Carmacks.
lay at Col. Shelbys who promised to go to the Island with me next day.
24th Sept. Friday Got to the Island. Met with Capt. Masten in my Way there at Major Bledsoe's -At the IslandDor. Walker informed me that this day he & Major W. Smith had given the Indians the following Talk.
[Blank page in Ms.]
Saturday Sept. 25th The Old Tassell replied as follows: Now I am come to the place appointed by my beloved Man to listen to the Talks of the beloved Men of Virginia -Here are both the Commiss. I speak to (meaning the Commiss. of both States) now we are on the beloved seats you shall hear what I have to say. These are the beloved seats where we've held the good Talks and saved the lives of so many of our people on both sides. tis now three Days (meaning years) since these good Talks were first held. When we first came from Chota Maps: Thomas Hutchins (1778) the way was very dark and troublesome but it was lies and bad people that occasioned it to be so, and caused trouble between us like wading thro' blood it was when I open'd the Way, and the Doors of Peace and brightned the Chain of friendship between us and our elder brothers. I am the man that open'd the Doors of Peace when they were fast shut that caused the light to shine from each one to the other, and ours and our elder brothers people to remain in peace. I've only been talking of the Peace between us and our friend and elder brother that sits here (meaning Col. Shelby) who was one of the appointed Commissioners at that time, as they both must remember well that everything which passed before that being bad was thrown away not to be brought into remembrance any more, insomuch that where the dead men lay they were buried so deep that large trees had grown out of their graves-That the beloved Man of Virginia and him of Chota talked together, stretch'd the chain of friendship from Virga. to Chota Maps: Thomas Hutchins (1778) , and appointed Commissioners that if any rust should get thereon, they and the beloved men from Chota might brighten it So that as their children came to any knowledge of things it might be a guide to them and had in remembrance for ages yet to come. and as for my own part I will always be assisting in keeping this chain bright. I speak to the Commissioners of both States-I often times talk from home that the Governor of N. C. may hear me, but I believe what I say never reaches his Ears. I as often speak to the Gov. of Virginia who I believe hears, and I hope both will hear, what I've now said A String to the Com. of both States.
You spake to me yesterday concerning the dividing Line between you which you left me to consider on till to day. I do not know how far you mean to extend it. My hunting grounds and my Lands reaches to Cumberland river -You have your livings at your Doors, tis not the Case with me, I am obliged to slave hard and
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and go a great way to get a support for myself and children, my hunting grounds extends to the Cumberland River, quite to the mouth of it on the south side, which is but a little place to support so great a number of people as are in my nation. I mention my people as I expect some of them are on their way for Cumberland there to make their Hunt, I am uneasy to get home to prevent any more from going, for if the line is extended thro' that Country you must fall in with some of them -moreover if it should pass thro' there and cut off any part of our huntg grounds 'twill make me begin to think of what I was told some years ago by the Kings people i. e. if our elder brothers here overcome them, they would at last take all our hunting grounds and bring us to nothing. But I hope this will not be the case, and that our elder brothers will have more compassion for us. Last Spring Hanging Man was sent by the great Warrior of Chota and talk'd with Col. Shelby and Major Martin concerning goods, which I understand by what he told me on his return they would use their best endeavours to supply us with-now you see the necessity we are in, you see we are almost naked, and 'tis only by holding our elder brother by the hand. We hope you will consider us and try to send us a supply as soon as Possible. I speak this to both States. Our concerns with N. C. has always been respecting Lands, we have never seen any supplies from them yet, but I hope the concerns of Lands will soon be at an end, then we expect they will consider us and send us some Cloathing as well as the other States. They by their Commissioners, moved the beloved seats from over the river to this place, here they kindled the beloved fire, and reserved the wood, the grass and the earth of this Island for our purpose, to hold good talks upon with our elder brothers, now I hear there is some man lays claim to it, altho the beloved men of the two States have reserved it for us. I speak to the Com. of both States 'tis 3 days since we held the good talks at this Place, and then with the Comm of N. C. we fixed a boundary between us and their people which was to begin on this river where the Virga. line did and run thence by the Chimney Top to the mouth of Camp Cr. on Nonachucka. Mr. English is settled over that line on a good place which we are not much offended at as we
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believe him to be a good man, but a great many others are settled far beyond him which must of course know they are over the line. Car has gained a great deal of ground of us for which we have never recd. any satisfaction no not even so much as trade. The great men in Car seem to hold everything very fast in their hands, they are always getting what they can, and lets nothing go, neither guns goods nor ammunition. A String to both Commissioners.
Sunday 26th. Col. Henderson made a speech which they did not seem to like very well.
Monday 27th Sept.
We Spake to them, as follows
Brothers, Chiefs and warriors of the Cherokee nation.
We are very glad to meet you our brothers and friends at this place where we before have had so many good talks to smoke the pipe of peace together and keep that chain of friendship clear from every speck of rust which we ourselves and we hope our children for ages yet to come shall feel the good effects of. But it gives us some concern to find that our Intention in the running the dividing line should be look'd upon by you as a matter that will be to your prejudice, as we have no intention of doing any thing with you our brothers but what will have a tendency to brighten the great chain of friendship which we have fast hold of much less to do any thing which is a real injury to you. As we did not conceive that this line would be anywise prejudicial to you so our only reason for acquainting you therewith was lest reports by evil minded persons should be carried to you misrepresenting the matter as the best intentions have sometimes been so construed. Now brothers we beg of you to listen well to what we are going to say. You told us the other day that our living was at our doors, but you had far to go and slave hard to support your people, we would recommend it to you to live as we do and only hunt for meat and skins to make you moccasons, raise corn and Cattle horses and hogs and sell them to cloath your wives and Children which you will find much
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surer and easier than your present manner of life. We are sorry to see and hear your people are so naked, the great men of Virga. ordered Clothes for you from the Illenois which we expected would soon be here but we are told the people of Chickamogga and Chickasaws will not let them come up this river, therefore we shall write to the great men by Your Shelby and your brother Martin will speak to them to send you goods from Virga. we are sorry the goods are not here to give you some clothes to return to your Towns with but the fault is in your enemies therefore hope you will not blame us as we are not in fault. You told us you hoped Virga. would not take away your Land, we can Assure you Virga. will not take any Land that you have a right to. Your beloved Island on which we now stand Virga. had secured to you by law if it fallen in that State and we make no doubt as it falls into Carolina but the great men there will reserve it for you. Hold fast the chain of friendship with Virga. and the Virginians will never let it slip out of their hands. The people over the water we believe will soon make peace with us and then we shall be able to give you a plentiful trade. As a Token &c, we give you this String of Wampum.
Tuesday 28th Sept. moved to the Camp at the millstone Quarry about 200 Yds. in Virg.
Wednesday 29th took Latitude we believe the line is about half a mile too far North. corroborated by another Observ.
Friday 1st Oct. Rain-but sat off in it to go to the Carolinians, only got to the Surveyors Camp on the S. E. side of the north fork of Holston. Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755)
Saturday 2d Oct.Being conscious from what information we had obtained that a Sufficient Guard could not be had on the Virga.
Side, for the pay allowd by Law, because the Carolinians gave at least seventimes as much Pay, and being further informed that if we would make a requisition of men from the Caro.
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they would furnish them, and put them under the Virga. Commander only leaving the matter to the two Assemblies to settle, this day we made the demands of fifty men on the Said Terms. moved down Carters Valley and encamp'd about 2 m. east of a fort.
Sunday 3d Oct. lay still.
Monday 4th Do.
By Observations at this Camp made till Sunday 10th it was made out by Mr. Burton and Mr. Guthrie we were 2' 10" too far south, and monday 11th. we began to measure off the distance on a north Course. we had also observ'd that the Var was lessend which possibly might have caused the error.
Tuesday 12th. Rain-lay all night on a a branch of Possum Cr. -
Wednesday 13th began to run back the East Course in company with Col. Williams while Dor. Walker and Col. Henderson run on West.-lay on a spring branch 2 miles & about a Quarter East of the termination of the N. line.
Thursday 14th got to where the Kentucky Waggon Road cross'd the North fork of Holston Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) , did not find the Surveyor to night.
Friday 15th Went to the Block House Maps: Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) -The Surveyor came there about 1°. Clock, then went to a branch about 1-2 miles eastwardly from Block House Maps: Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) & lay all night.
Saturday 16th While the Line kept on took the Latitude on a Knob about 1-4 m. south of the Line. The Double alt. of Sun 89° 0' 30". got to Abm. Bledsoes.
Sunday 17th Observ'd again at Abm. Bledsoes. here we were in Lat. 36° 31' 40" N.
Monday 18th Observed in Robts. mill pond dble. Alt. 87° 36'. Major Smiths was 87° 42'. This Place is 6oo or 700 Yds. in Carolina by the first line and my observation nearly proved the sd. line right.
19th. on a knob about 1-4 mile South of the new line observ'd again. dble Alt. 86° 46'. Major Smith's 87° 12'.
20th. in a Plantation about 1-4 mile North of the line observ'd again dble Alt. 86° 3' 31". Major Smiths 86° 14". Went to Major Bledsoe's.
21st. took the Lat. here Dble alt. 85° 23'+
22d. Measured the Distance the two lines were apart. it was 838 po.
23d. Rain all day. lay still.
24th. took the Lat. again-Dble. Alt. 83° 17'. here I was about 1-2 mile North of the first Line. All these Observations made out that the new line was wrong and that the old one was nearly right. And I came to this Conclusion, that either I did not see as others usually do, or that the first line was right. I found there was no dependence to be placed in Major Smith's Observations, who as will appear above frequently made us from 4 to 8 or 9 miles off the Line. I resolved therefore to go back to Mr. Walker let him take the Lat. If his Observ. made the new line right, I would be convinced I did not see like other people. If on the Contrary they should agree with mine I would be for correcting the line. Got this night to Abm. Bledsoes.
25th. Monday Went by Col. Henderson's Camp in Carters Valley, delivered him his Quadrant which had been entrusted to my Care, and which I had forgot to mention, I had discovered at Major Bledsoes to make the Sun's Alt. less than ours, told him I could not make an observation to prove the last line right, on the Contrary, they always proved the first to be so. This he said he was surprised at. Lay at John Loonys.
Wednesday 27th. Dor. Walker took the Lat. we were 50 scants [seconds?] in Virga. altho' considerably south of the Line. lost Horses, could not travel till
Thursday 28th. got to a Lick on Black Water.
Friday 29th. Saturday 30th & Sunday 31st. all these days Dor. Walker observed and his observations made us at the least 42 seconds in Virga. this was the lowest observ the highest 1' 20" altho near a mile south of the line. wrote to Col. Henderson who had not yet joined us that we were satisfied the first line was right and that if his observ. had been the same with ours to have it brought up.
Monday 1st Novem. this afternoon Col. Henderson came to us.
Tuesday 2d. Dor. Walker & Col. Henderson went to the top of the Knob - and observed.
Wednesday 3d Nov. Dor. Walker observed with their Instrument on the line which he made 4 miles too far north.
Thursday 4th. Sent off Mr. Michie to bring up the first line. Mr. Burton observed with their Instrument and nearly agreed with Dor. Walker.
Friday 5th. Mr. Burton & Mr. Guthrie observed as they did in Carters Valley, look'd at Mr. G 's Instrument, and found what I suspected that the reflection sun was too low. began to measure off the Distance southwardly to keep on the line.
Saturday 6th. finished measuring the line to the South, and started Capt. Burton from the 69 mile tree agreed to meet him near Cum Gap. then cross'd Powell's mount went by our Camp and lay at the Car Maps: John Mitchell (1755) .
Sunday 7th. Went back to our Camp on bus. returned & lay on Powells River Maps: John Mitchell (1755) .
Monday 8th. Col. Henderson proposed sending his Brothers or Capt. Hiardin Co. we told him any that would do the duty we would be satisfied with lay about 3 miles west of Martins.
Tuesday 9th. Got to a branch about 2 miles E of Cum. Gap.
Wednesday-Made us a large Sextant to observe with.
Thursday 1lth. lay still. Surveyors not come yet. Capt. Hardin's Company Joind us.
Friday 12th. Mr. Michie came to us. Our observ. at this place were that we were 2 miles in Virga. Capt. Burton came to us this evening.
Saturday 13th. Got Mr. Anderson to act as surveyor, moved over Cum. mount. lay on flat Cr.
Sunday 14th. Lay still. Sent Capt. Bledsoe to explore the Country.
Monday 15th. Lat. 36° 32' 50" N. Capt.
Bledsoe returned. from his account
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concluded it best to go along the Kentucky road. march'd about 4 miles lay on flat Cr. Capt. Anderson came to us in the night. not having met with the Escort sent him in consequence of some Hunters having fallen in with and killed some Indians.
Tuesday 16th. While we were on our march received an extraordinary Letter from the N. Carolina Commissioners, withdrawing Capt. Hardin's Company from our Service and discharging him-lay in the south edge of the bottom just below the ford of the Cumberland.
Wednesday 17th. Nov. Lay here till after 12. Took Lat. which was 36° 41' 58"-march'd on to a small Cr. about S. W.
Thursday 18th. March'd about S. W. 7 or 8 miles along a broken Valley at the foot of Stone mountn . encamp'd on a Cany Cr .
Friday 19th. Held on our Course up to the Cr . & out at the head of it, fell on two other Branches which we kept up and out at their heads, lay on a Cr. that Ran directly into the clear fork about 4 or 5 miles from the mouth thereof.
Saturday l0th. Got to the clear fork and encamp'd on the N. E. bank just below the mouth of a small gut, about a mile above the mouth of the Cr. we came down. a rocky clift being about 1-4 mile above us (on the other side of the river) which faced to the north.
Sunday 21st. This morning a party of Cherokee Indians and a White Man of the name of Springstone came to us, about 1 or 2 oclock Capt. Anderson and his party all came safe to us.
Monday 22d. Novr. Here a very mutinous spirit began to apear among the Guard owing to our continuing the line thro' such a mountainous desart and we thought it most Prudent to run the line to the Clear Fork, then turn to the North into the Kentucky road and down the North side of Cumberland to the valuable Country and there proceed on with it. We began to pursue this plan the line strikes the clear fork about 1-2 mile above the mouth of the little Cr. in a canebrake on a Poplar & 2 Hackberry trees marked with the initial letters of several names measuring from Steep Rock Cr . 123 3/4 miles. this day after quitting the line went by the Indian Camp and got three of them to go along with us, lay on the E. side the river 7 or 8 m. Took the Lat. where the line strikes river tis 36' 30"
Tuesday 23d. Cross'd the river travelled about 5 or six miles lay on W. Side.
Wednesday 24th. Kept down river cross'd Cum: below the mo: of clear fork lay in the bottom on N. side. Cloudy & a little rain 5 or 6 miles.
Thursday 25th. Cloudy. travelled across from the river to Indian Cr Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) . then up the Cr. N Easterly about 6 or 7 m. Snow to night.
Friday 26th. lay still, all day took lat tis 36° 47' 16".
Saturday 27th. Nov. 1779. Removed from Indian Cr Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Thomas Jefferson (1786) Lewis Evans (1755) . N. E.ward 5 or 6 miles and encamp'd on Lynn Camp Cr. a branch of Laurel River. Cloudy & like for rain to night.
Sunday 28th. Misty and some rain with thick Clouds. to day Capt. Craig's Company were told that in Consequence of what had been promised them heretofore (especially at Clear fork) we now were ready to discharge part of them, or all above 15 Which at length they furnish'd us. rain to night.
Wednesday 1st. Decr. Cloudy travelled N. E. about 5 miles encamp'd on another branch of Lynn Camp Cr.
Thursday 2d Decr. Windy and showers of Snow latter part of the day cloudy Billy Camden got lost and lay out all night.
Friday 3d. While I went up to the Kentucky road looking the lost man Mr. Walker took the Lat. of this Camp tis 36° 53'. Billy Camden came in. We prepared to make an early start tomorrow morning.
Saturday 4th. Moved into the Kentucky road and along it to Laurel River encamp'd about a mile above the road. Snow to night.
Sunday 5th. Snowing, lay still.
Monday 6th. Cloudy, lay Still.
Tuesday 7th. March'd to the first Creek of Rockcastle. Col. Henderson was encamp'd we were told about a half a mile below us.
Thursday 9th. Cross'd Rock Castle & left the Kentucky road, encamp'd on the river about 3-4 mile below where the Kentucky road leaves it. a Hard wind to night.
Friday 10th. lay still. waiting for Major Bledsoe to come up, who had been left where we saw Col. Henderson, looking lost Horses. took the latitude of this Place 'tis 37° 13' not sure the Inst. right adjusted. To night Major Bledsoe came up.
Saturday 11th. Travelled about 8 miles, tho perhaps not more than 5 on a right line, our general course about West. lay near the head of a branch of Rock Castle at a small Canebreak. Rain to night.
Sunday 12th. Much rain to day, all day. lay still.
Monday 13th. Cloudy and some showers of snow. After 12 o'Clock the creek not suiting our course from this Camp we travelled along a ridge nearly West. till we came to a branch of Buck Cr. which we kept down till after it Sunk, this evening we fell on a Trace that we suppose led
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to the french Lick, encamp'd on it. A Cold night. our days march 6 m.
Tuesday 14th. Decr. A Very cold day, but clear. travelled along the Trace N. Westerly about 2 m. to buck Cr. which too high to ford lay at it all day. an excessive cold night.
Wednesday 15th. Cold and Cloudy. Travelled up Buck Cr. about 1 mile on the E. side by which we missed two crossings of the cr: then we cross'd it and travelled along the Trace a little to the Southward of west, cross'd another fork of Buck Cr at a lick, up a branch and out at the head thereof, then down a branch of Pittman's cr. encampd at the first Cane thereon. A little snow tonight 8 m to day.
Thursday 16th. went down the Cr. by my self about 2 1-2 m. found Pittman's and several other families encamp'd there. went back to camp lay still all day.
Friday 17th. Went down Pittman's cr. cross'd it several times, then at last left it and travelled across to Fishing cr : which we struck about 5 m. above the mouth. lay on a small branch at the mouth. Misty all day. 12 miles to day.
Saturday 18th. lay still, went down cr. to find the river. I did not go far enough, killd a buffaloe & return'd. Mr. Michie took Lat. 'tis 36° 58'.
Sunday 19th. march'd down the cr. nearly South about 5 m to the river then about W. S. W. 1 m. down the river, and encamp'd. Lat. of this place on an accurate obser. 36° 54' 42". Dble. Alt. ver. ob. 59° 19'.
Monday 20th. Major Bledsoe went to look for Trees to build Canoes and go down by water in pursuance of a resolution which we took at Laurel River, having return'd and found them. next day Tuesday 21st. we march'd down the river about 5 miles to the Place.
Wednesday 22d. Set about the Canoes, Mr. Michie took Lat. 'tis 36° 51' 31"
Thursday 23d. I took the Lat. Meridian dble alt. 59° 22'. ver. ob: Lat. 36° 53' 31"
Friday 24th. Do. - Do.- 59° 25' rather cloudy 36° 53' 16".
Saturday 25th. Christmas Day. Do. Do. 59° 27'. ver. ob. 36° 53' 16".
Sunday 26th. No work on canoes these days.
Monday 27th. Working on Canoes. Cloudy & misty or little rain.
Tuesday 28th. Do. Do.
Wednesday 29th. Saw the Sun a little tho not enough to take a good observation.
Thursday 30th. Cloudy & a little Snow.
Friday 31st. Clear & cool. Mr. Walker took Lat. ver: ob. dble alt. 60°3. Lat. 36.53.58 discoursed a little with Wm. Young who just came from Ky .
Saturday Jany. 1st. 1780. Launched one of the Canoes. Jerry Pearce came over from Prices & lay with us to night. Snow to night.
Sunday 2d. Thro scarcity of meat went down by water a hunting with 2 others. Cloudy & some snow. Killed T'urkies at night to live on. lay 4 m. below Station Camp.
Monday 3d. went about 3 miles lower & killed 6 Buffaloes. late before we got them butcher'd clear & very cold night.
Tuesday 4th. moved up the river with two of our Buffaloes. The ice was so had coming down the river we could only reach our Sunday nights camp where we lay with Oba. Terrel.
Wednesday 5th. got back to Station Camp. but some how by accident got the britch of my gun broke off.
Thursday 6th. cold to such a degree the river froze over
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and continued froze over till Sunday 9th. Jany. 1780 when Major Bledsoe crossed over on it to go to Prices. In this Time I fixed up my gun Barr in another Stock & lock.
Thursday 13th. Went down the river a hunting in order that less provision might serve at our Station Camp as there was no appearance of a thaw. J M. & F. W. went with me. lay at Oba's camp.
Friday 14th. lay on the Riv. 9 m. below Station camp to go to the nearest way killed two buffaloes.
Saturday 15th. killed another buffaloe.
Monday 17th. went alone back to Station Camp.
Thursday 20th. returned to J. M;. & F. W.
Friday 21st. moved down the river 6 m. lower killed 5 buffaloes.
Thursday 27th. went back to Station Camp. no appearance of a thaw yet. Stay'd here till
Monday 31st. Mr. Sharp went back down the riv. with me.
Monday 7th. Feby. Snow a little last night & to day.
Wednesday the weather had moderated a little.
Thursday 10th Feby. An appearance of a thaw coming on. We went to Station camp. Rain to night a litle.
Saturday 12th. Riv. rose much. Sunday 13th. This morning the Ice broke and we launch'd our Canoe.
Monday 14th. launched another Canoe.
Tuesday 15th. launchd the other and sat off down the river lay about 1 m. above our first encampment. vid. plat of riv.
Wednesday 16th. at 39 m. dist by water from Canoe Camp passed by the mouth of a large Cr. on the S. Side at 57 m. encamp'd at the foot of a large bottom on N. Side where the riv. runs E. just above the mouth of a small cr, where there was cattle left & Mr. Sharp lay from us.
Thursday 17th. at 72 m. passed by a curious nat. bridge on N. Side. at 76 m. encamp'd on N. Side in a large bottom.
Friday 18th. at the mouth of Brushy Cr . found a note of Capt. Bledoe's, who had gone along with the horses. the Lat. of this place 36° 42' 46" and 91 m. distant at 106 m. pass'd by the mouth of a cr. on N. Side. another note from I. B. at 117 m. another cr: on N. Side with fresh Blazes where we encamp'd.
Saturday 19th. at 132 m. Stopp'd on S. Side and took Lat. which was 36° 34' 51". at 147 m. a cr: on N. Side at 149 m. encamped on N. Side.
Sunday 20th. went up the bottom, supposing we were in Carolina, to the mo. of the last cr. and took Lat. it was 36° 30' 49". Dble. alt. 85° 12' . measured some [down?] 298 po. to the supposed Line To day Major Bledsoe went in search of his brother.
Monday 21st. Major Bledsoe returnd with his brother. Rain.
Tuesday 22d. A Wet kind of Snow. all day.
Wednesday 23d. Some Snow. hunted this afternoon for Turkies.
Thursday 24th. Clear & Cold. went to the place of Observation Dble. alt. 88° 9'.
Friday 25th. Went again to the place of observation. and as our observations had never varied more than 19 seconds fix'd the line.-to begin at a Beech on the top of the bank. The line crosses the river nearly at right angles (55 S W S. W) bottom on both sides the river. mark'd our names
< Page 15 >
and the date on the two Beeches. and also marked on the Eastern bank an east course from the Beech. Our names on two Maple-like trees and their Initials on a box elder. having done this the Surveyor ran the line West to the top of the first hill. & A creek comes in on the N. W. side about a mile above the line and a smaller one on S E side about 1-2 mile in Carolina.
Saturday 26th Feby. To day Mr. Walker sat off with his Party and Canoes to secure provisions &c. while I went with Mr. Michie On the line. We were to meet at the French Lick or in its neighborhood, at least I was to do so with the Quadrant, and Mr. Michie is to run from where I shall leave him to where the line crosses cumberland again. Run 2 m & 240 po. to a cr: running northeasterly, being the cr. at the mouth of which we had taken the Lat : the line keeps near by us the cr. crossing it [blank in Ms.] times at 5 m. 1/4 encamp'd in cr: bottom. about 3-4 m. above a north fork of it.
Sunday 27th. at mid-day to day took Lat. line right. at about 7 1/2 m. the top of the dividing of the waters between cumberland & Green River Maps: Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) Aaron Arrowsmith (1802) . Vid. map. line- at 14 3/4 m. encamp'd on a small br. running S. into a Cr. of Green R Maps: Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) Aaron Arrowsmith (1802) .
Monday 28th. at 16 m. - 6 po. Came to the cr. again, and being entirely without meat and having fasted some time went a hunting- killed two large Bull Buffaloes.
Tuesday 29th. Ran about 6 m. to day. Rain in the Afternoon. Quit the line at 22 m. - a few ch. and went down a branch that ran about N7 0W. encamped on a cr: at the mo. of sd. branch. rain.
Wednesday 1st march. It did not clear up till near ten o'Clock, -then fair, took Lat. found the line very right. Dble. Alt. 92° 40 at 23 m. 6o poles cross'd cr: we camp'd on, cross'd a steep hill, at 23 m. 104 po. another cr: running near north - cross'd another hill, at 24 m. 34 po. another cr: these creeks we suppose come together and run into the one we came down first. at 27 m. 152 po. left line and went to the north about 1-2 m: and camp'd on a br.
Thursday 2d. March. at 28 m. 6o po. cross'd another cr : running N then across some very briery ridges at 34 m. 4o po. another cr. running to the N. on which we encamp'd.
Friday 3d. at 38 m. 240 po. a cr : on which we encamp'd - Newton's cr: Hunted today but could kill nothing.
Saturday 4th. at 46 m. 212 p. came to a cr. on which we encamp'd 2 Buffaloes kill'd to day poor.
Sunday 5th. Rain this morning a little, in the afternoon a good deal. lay still.
Monday 6th. Our meat being very lean & it being an unlikely day, Capt. Bledsoe hunted - I staid at Camp in order if fair to take an Observation, which I did tis 36° 30' 15". Dble alt. 96° 30'. As this observ. was good I depend much on it. I discovered also as I thought that too little variation was allowed. Mem: observe to night-'Twas cloudy about 9 o'Clock, and hard rain afterwards till near day but when the Pole Star was in the most western part of his orbit it appeared there was, by taking his bearing, to be full six degrees var.
Tuesday 7th. Run to day magnetically S 84 W. at 50 m. 178 p. crossed a creek running N. W. on which we killd a Buff. at 51 3/4 m. got into the edge of the Barrens. at 55 m. 242 po. a large cr. running near N about 10 W. on which we encamp'd Took the Variation to night at Sunset by her amplitude and also by the pole Star when on the meridian. I find it 7° Degrees E .
Wednesday M. 8th. at 64 m. 294 po. a Cr. whose gen: course seems N. W. tho' just where we cross'd it N. E. on the W. Side of which we encampd - Went hunting found the Cumberland Road about 1-2 mile to the West.
Thursday 9th. at 66 m. 14 po. cross'd the Cumberland Road running W S W. at 73 m. 231 po. a cr. on which we encamp'd. Took Lat. today. 36° 29' 52". Dble. alt. 98.51.
March 10th. Obliged to stop to hunt. Capt. Bledsoe killed nothing but 2 Deer. took Lat. line very right Dble. Alt. 99° 39' 30".
Saturday 11th. To day I sat off to the French Lick to meet Mr. Walker. Got into the Cumberland Road and lay thereon on a small br: of Red River Maps: John Mitchell (1755) Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) Aaron Arrowsmith (1802) . 25 miles to day.
Sunday 12th. Got to Gaspar's Lick. Snow.
Monday 13th. lay still.
Tuesday 14th. Got to the French Lick.
Wednesday 15th. Sat off to meet Mr. Michie. Lat. at Eatons 36° 7".64 at 30 m. lay on N. side on a high Point - Lost Tomhawk.
Thursday 16th. at 20 1/2 m. pass'd by the mouth of Harpers River in all 32 1/4 m. Ind. town.
Friday 17th. only 11 3/4 m to day. Ind. town.
Saturday 18th. at: 11 3/4 took Lat. 36° 21' 22" at 12 3/4 ms. of red river in all 36 m. lay on high bottom just below where our dog wounded met Shawto day.
Sunday 19th. at 17 1/2 m. took Lat. 36° 19' 25" at a pond 1 m. above Sharp's cr. at 23 1/4 Island. at 31 m. lay in rich bottom N. side.
Monday 20th. at 9 1/2 met with the Surveyor. line too far South owing to a change of the Variation. met Carvin to day.
Tuesday 21st. Observed again found as yesterday run the off set.
Wednesday 22d. After observing again to day, and finding the line right Sat off for the Tenasa.
Thursday 23d. at about 10 O'Clock joyfully surprized with the sight of the Tenasa 140 m. 1-4 from the Cumberland at our crossing it in Feby. Turnd back and got to the Cumberland that night. These River are but 9 1-4 miles apart, tho so far from their mouths.
Friday 24th. got 5 or 6 m. up the river. Dan. Frazier & Jerry Sears went up by land with the Horses.
Saturday 25th. got to the mouth of Sharpes Cr. Set a Sail today, little wind.
Sunday 26th. Easter Sunday. wind agt. us.
27th. Monday. fair wind part of the day, flawy.
29th. Wednesday wind agt. us.
30th. Thursday no wind.
31st. Friday got to Harpers Riv.
Apl. 1st. Saturday got to Tomhawk Cam [p]
Apl 2d Sunday got to Amos Eaton's.
Apl. 3d. Monday Rain.
Tuesday 4th. Rain.
Wednesday 5th. sold four Horses 3 Kettles some Tents &c. Settled some accts.
6th. Thursday hunted horses.
7th. Friday Horses not all found-Received a letter from the governor to go to the Falls of Ohio on particular business. Col. Henderson brought this letter.
8th. Saturday. This morning began to recruit a guard to go to the falls.
l0th. Monday Col. Henderson informed 'twas his opinion Carolina would establish the line we had run.
11th. Tuesday little success in the recruiting way.
Wednesday 12th. moved to Gaspar Mancoes lick.
Thursday 13th. two horses lost. hunted for them all day in rain. Just before we left Eatons we recd. of Major Bledsoe L454. 7. but on counting it again at a leisure hour found we had made an error that in counting one of the parcels we had counted a 35 for a fifty five dollar bill-and that the other parcel was L2, 16s. more than the 200L which it had been counted for. so that we had recd. no more than 451L 3 of which I used 11 Dollars to pay for the making a hunting Shirt and also pd. Gaspar Manscoe his charge of 30 Dollars for Diet at his house while the Horses were hunting. At Gaspars recd. also L45 of Major Bledsoes for other Articles he had sold. recollected afterwards that the L2.16 was [paid] me by Major Bledsoe for expence which I had paid on the Back Line. Saturday 15th. Apl. Crossed the line lay on the N. fork of the Red Riv Maps: John Mitchell (1755) Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) Aaron Arrowsmith (1802) .
Sunday 16th. at 12 m. Came to Skeggs Cr. kept down it crossing it sev. times. encamped near the month course N 30 E. abt. 27 or 28 m. in the whole.
Monday 17th. cross'd Skeggs Cr. and big barren Riv. this morning then to rocky Spring course N E. abt. 13 or 14 m. then N 10 E. (left Trace) 4 m. and encamp'd on N. Side Green Riv Maps: Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) Aaron Arrowsmith (1802) .
Tuesday 18th. Moved about 10 m. on a course about N 10 E. encamp'd on a cr. we called Raccoon cr .
Wednesday 19th. down Raccon Cr. 2 1-2 m. across a hill 1 m. to a large Cr. supposed to be the rolling fork of Salt River Maps: Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) held on our course and in about 4 m. more came to the sd. cr. again it ran so crooked encamp'd on the E. Side. Course about N 30 E. 7 1-2 m. to day in the whole.
Thursday 20th. to day cross'd riv. up a cr. N 20 E 1 m. to fork up W fork W N W. 1 m. North 1 m. along a valley N 10 E. 3 m. to riv. W. I m. N 20 W 2 m-reduced to a straight N 10 W. 6 1-2 m. lay on W. Side.
Friday 21st. cross'd cr. twice to day at 5 m. it seem'd to bear so much to E. we expect not to cross it again, in all reduced to straight N 8 E. 11 1-2 m. lay at a pond. barrens all day. continued to where I cut my foot.
Saturday 22d. N 5 E. 10 m. (at 7 m. a small cr. running to N. W. at 8 m. a dry one with a Spring N. W.) to a Buffaloe road, along the Buffaloe road N 55 E. 3 m. lay on a cr. along this Buffaloe road we saw Horse tracks which is the first marks we had seen of any human being having been in these desarts from the day we left rocky Spring.
Sunday 23d. Apl. Cut my foot accidentally this morning. travelled N 18 E. 12 m. N 80 E. 1-2 N 1 m. to a Lick. N to E. 1 1-2 in. thro some knobs to Salt Riv. Maps: Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) on which we encamp'd after beginning a raft. It forks about 1-2 m. Above us.- Back Water from the Ohio Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Thomas Hutchins (1778) Lewis Evans (1755) seems to come here.
Monday 24th. Rafted across the River. then N 70 E. 1 1-2 into a Buffaloe road at foot of the hill which bore to left, we kept it about N. E. 5 1-2 m. to Bullets Lick. then North 3-4 m. encamp'd on a br:
Tuesday 25th. N. E. abt. 7 m. into the Trace leading to the Falls along it about North 12 m. to the Falls, where we were told Col. Clark had left that place 14th Inst. to go to the Iron Banks. One Capt. Killen of his corps offer'd to carry us down to him as he was just going there and with him we agreed to go. Rain Thunder & lightning this afternoon-we got very wet. found Smith Hansborough here.
Wednesday 26th. Settled with Mr. Sharpe who fell in our debt L9 16s. which he paid - he had a bag afterwards. Pd Edwin Garnet his acct. L75 4s. Also Jeremiah Sears the Same. Also Wm. West. the Same also Lewis Riland the same. Also let Jno. Jenkins have 35 Dollars and Hugh Hays 60 Dollars. pd. for my own use 10 Dollars to Mr. Sharpe for a Knife and 142 Dollars to Smith Hansborough in exchange of Guns. then embarked. Cloudy & misty. If Paper was plenty I would attempt a description of our uncomfortable situation - with a Xantippe of a Landlady, something like a Petruchio of Shakespear or Nabal for a Landlord their Dirty children leaky boat Drunkenness &c. but I am by no means equal to the task.
Thursday 27th. at day I suppose we were about 15 m. below the mouth of Salt River Maps: Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) . To day I recollected that the excess of the 200L parcel was owing to Major Bledsoe's having paid me 9 Dollars for expence I had paid on the back line. drifted all night, we thought we discover'd an Indian fire on their Shore to night. Thursday 27th. Nothing remarkable, drifted chiefly or rowed but little saw several fires on shore to night which we suppose must be caused either by the woods being on fire or by the Indians. drifted all night.
Friday 28th. rowed & drifted nothing remarkable but scarcity of provision. foot painful.
Sunday 30th. Strong wind agt. us till after noon lay still till wind abated. then started. we lay at Yellow Banks last night.
Monday 1st. May wind agt. us-hunting parties detained us on an Island opposite to the mouth of Wabash Riv. Maps: Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Thomas Hutchins (1778) till near sun down, then Started down & row'd all night.
Tuesday 2d. May. Very sick. came by the mouth of Cum: abt. 8 o'clock this evening.
Wednesday 3d. This morning at break of day opposite to the old fort Massac this afternoon at 5 o'clock got to the mouth of the Ohio Maps: Joshua Fry-Peter Jefferson (1751) John Mitchell (1755) Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Thomas Hutchins (1778) Lewis Evans (1755) . then down the Mississippi Maps: John Mitchell (1755) Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1763) Thomas Hutchins (1778) Aaron Arrowsmith (1811) Aaron Arrowsmith (1802) about 5 m. to Col. Clarkes encampment, who we saw this evening and had some conversation with respecting our business.
Thursday 4th & Friday 5th. Staid at the Intended Town.
Saturday 6th. Went down to the Iron Bank, encamp'd on the Spanish Shore a little below-rather hazy.
Sunday 7th. Cloudy. rain last night.
Monday 8th. clear in morning but cloudy at noon. run some lines to enable us to know the width of riv.
Tuesday 9th. May. cloudy, but being convinced we were north of the line moved to the S. end of the Island-abt. 5 m.
Wednesday l0th. observed. Thursday 11th. agreed with Yesterdays observ. we were 3' 19" in Virginia-from this point of the Island we ran east to the main land where I marked a buck eye elm & Sugar tree then South 3 m. 265 po. thence West.106 po. to riv. 96 po. of which we mark'd. new land is forming here, nothing to mark but cotton trees-moved up the riv. till abt. r m. below Wt. Clift.-a cr: abt. 1-4 m. above wt. clift.-lay in the wet without fire.
Friday 12th. got up to Col. Clarke.
Saturday 13th. embark'd again for Kaskaskios.
Thursday 18th. arrived at Kaskaskios. and remained there (which place we made Lat. 37°. 39'. N) till
Monday 5th. June not well the night of 5th June. left this place to go homewards. arrived at Camp Jefferson
Wednesday 7th. June a few minutes after the Indians had murdered 3 men near the town. 2 others were missing supposed to be made prisoners and it appeared that had killed another last monday from his bloody clothes being found in the Indians Canoes. people much distressed for want of provisions and in confusion.
Saturday l0th. June. Col Clark with 2 men sat off to go by land to the falls of Ohio.
Wednesday 14th. June. embarked to go to falls of Ohio with no more provision than one quart of unsound corn per day for ten days.
Tuesday 4th. July arrived at the falls.
Thursday 6th. Sent for our horses and went as far as Col. Floyds, who lent us 195 L. 15 of which Jenkins used in Swap of guns and is to be charged with.-
Monday 10th. July got to Harrodsburgh, continued on by that place to Willson's Station.
Tuesday 11th. July-got up to Logan's - overtook Col. Henderson on the road. 12th. Staid all Day at Logan's.
Thursday 13th. July. left Logans and got 2 m. S. E. of Chas. English's.
Friday night 14th. July lay on the most easterly waters of Skegg's cr before we came to rock Castle.
Saturday night 15th. July, lay on Laurel Riv. Waters.
Sunday night 16th. July. lay on Rich land cr.
Monday night 17th. July lay cross'd Cumberland lay on Clear Cr.
Tuesday 18th. July cross'd Cum : mountains & lay abt. 2 m. east of the Gap.-to night the Indians stole 7 of our horses.
Wednesday 19th. July followed after our horses and retook them.
Thursday 20th. July. got to Trading Cr.
Friday 21st to Crismans Spring - Settled and pd. Hugh Hays 830 & 270 Dollars.
Saturday 22d. July-parted with Mr. Walker-lay between the Stock Cr. & the Rye Cove.
Sunday 23d. lay at David Guess old place.
Monday 24th. lay at Chas. Hays's.
Tuesday 25th. got home.
7th Augt. Monday in the morning early [The journal ends.]