Envisaging the West: Thomas Jefferson and the Roots of Lewis and Clark


Doctor Thomas Walker's Journal 1750

Thomas Walker's Journal (1750)
Lewis Preston, Annals of Southwest Virginia, 1769-1800 vol. 1, Abingdon, Virginia, 1929: 8-26.
In March 1750 (1749 under the Julian Calendar), Thomas Walker and several companions set off through western Virginia into modern-day Kentucky; Walker served as field agent for the Loyal Land Company. His journal documents some of the earliest Euro-American impressions of the Cumberland region. Walker was a close friend of the Jefferson family, serving as an executor of Peter Jefferson's estate.

Having, on the 12 day of December last been employed for a certain consideration to go to the Westward in order to discover a proper Place for a Settlement I left my House on the Sixth day of March at 10 o'clock, 1750, in Company with Ambrose Powell, William Tomlinson, Colby Chew, Henry Lawless, & John Hughs. Each man had a Horse and we had two to carry the Baggage. I lodged this night at Colo. Joshua Fry's in Albemarle Maps: , which County includes the chief of the head Branches of James River Maps: on the east side of the blue Ridge..


March 1750

[March 7 1750]

7 March 1750 Wee set off about 8 but the day proving wet we only went to Thomas Joplin's on Rockfish Maps: . This is a pretty River, which might at a small expense be made fit for transporting Tobacco;
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but it has lately been stopped by a Mill Dam near the Mouth to the prejudice of the upper Inhabitants, who would at their own expence clear and make it navigable, were they permitted.

[March] 8th [1750]

8th. We left Joplin's early. It began to rain about Noon, I left my People at Thomas Jones's and went to the Reverend Mr. Robert Rose's on Tye River Maps: . This is about the size of Rockfish Maps: 's, as yet open, but how long the Avarice of Millers will permit it to be so, I know not. At present the Inhabitants enjoy plenty of fine fish, as Shads in their season, Carp, Rocks, Fat-Backs which I suppose to be Tench, Perch Mullets, etc.

[March] 9th [1750]

9th. As the weather continues unlikely, I moved only to Baylor Walker's Quarters.

[March] 10th [1750]

10th. The weather is still Cloudy, and leaving my People at the Quarter, I rode to Mr. John Harvie's where I dined and return'd to the illegible in ye Evening.

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[March] 11th [1750]

11th. The Sabbath.

[March] 12th [1750]

12th. We crossed the Fluvanna Maps: & lodged at Thomas Hunt's.

[March] 13th [1750]

13th. We went early to William Calloway's and supplied ourselves with Rum, Thread, and other necessaries & from thence took the main Waggon Road leading to Wood's or the New River Maps: . It is not well clear'd or beaten yet, but will be a very good one with proper management. This night we lodged in Adam Beard's low grounds. Beard is an ignorant, impudent, brutish fellow, and would have taken us up, had it not been for a reason, easily to be suggested.

[March] 14th [1750]

14th. We went from Beards to Nicholas Welches, where we bought corn for our Horses, and had some Victuals dress'd for Breakfast. After wards we crossed the Blue Ridge. The Ascent and Descent is so easie, that a Stranger would not know, when he crossed the Ridge. It began to rain about Noon and continued

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till night. we lodged at William Armstrongs. corn is very scarce in these Parts

[March] 15th [1750]

15th. Wee went to the great Lick on A Branch of the Staunton Maps: and bought Corn of Michael Campbell for our Horses. This Lick has been one of the best places for Game in these parts and would have been of much greater advantage to the Inhabitants than it has been, if the Hunters had not Killed the Buffaloes for diversion, and the Elks and Deer for their Skins. This afternoon we got to the the Staunton Maps: where the Houses of the Inhabitans [sic.] had been carryed off with their grain, and Fences by the Fresh Last Summer, and lodged at James Robinson's, the only place I could hear of, where they had Corn to Spare, notwithstanding the the [sic.] land is such that an industrious man might make 100 Barrels a share in a seasonable year.

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March 16th 1750

16th March 1750. We kept up the the Staunton Maps: to William Englishes. He lives on a small Branch, and was not much hurt by the Fresh. He has a mill, which is the furthest back except one lately built by the Sect of People, who call themselves of the Brotherhood of Euphrates, and are commonly called the Duncards

[March] 17th [1750]

17th who are the upper Inhabitants of the New River Maps: , which is about 400 yards wide at this Place. They live on the west side, and we were obliged to swim our Horses over. The Duncards are an odd set of people, who make it a matter of Religion not to shave their Beards, ly on Beds, or eat Flesh, though at present in the last, they transgress, being constrained to it, as they say, by the want of a sufficiency of Grain and Roots, they having not long been seated here. I doubt the plenty and deliciousness of the Venison & Turkeys has contributed not a little to this. The unmarried have no private Property, but live on

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a common Stock. They dont baptize either Young or Old, they keep their Sabbath on Saturday, & hold that all men shall be happy hereafter, but first must pass through punishment according to their Sins. They are very hospitable.

[March] 18th [1750]

18th. The Sabbath.

[March] 19th [1750]

19th. We could not find our Horses and Spent the day in Looking for them. In the evening we found their track

[March] 20th [1750]

20th. We went very early to the track of our Horses & after following them six or seven miles we found them all together. we returnd to the Duncards about 10 o'clock, and having purchased half a Busshell of meal and as much small Homony we set off and Lodged on a small Run between Peak Creek Maps: and Reedy Creek Maps: .

[March] 21st [1750]

21st. We got to We got to Reedy Creek Maps: and Camped near James McCall's. I went to his house and Lodged and bought

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what Bacon I wanted

[March] 22d [1750]

22d. I return'd to my People early. we got to a large Spring about five miles below Davis'es Bottom on Holstons River Maps: and Camped.

[March] 23d [1750]

23d. We kept down Holstons River Maps: about four miles and Camped; and then Mr. Powel and I went to look for Samuel Stalnaker, who I had been inform'd was just moved out to Settle. We found his Camp, and return'd to our own in the Evening.

[March] 24 [1750]

24. We went to Stalnakers, helped him to raise his house and Camped about a Quarter of a Mile below him. In April 1748, I met the above mentioned Stalnaker between the Reedy Creek Maps: Settlement, and Holstons River Maps: , on his way to the Cherokee Indians, and expected him to pilate me as far as he knew but his affairs would not permit him to go with me.

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[March] 25th [1750]

25th. The Sabbath. Grass is plenty in the low Grounds.

[March] 26th [1750]

26th. We left the Inhabitans, and kept nigh West to a large Spring on a Branch of the North fork of Holston Maps: . Thunder, Lightning, and rain before day.

[March] 27th [1750]

27th. It began to snow in the morning and continued till Noon. The Land is very hilly from West to North. Some Snow lies on the tops of the mountains N: W: from us.

[March] 28th [1750]

28th. We travelled to the lower end of Giants Ditch on Reedy Creek Maps: .

[March] 29th [1750]

29th. Our Dogs were very uneasie most of this Night.

[March] 30th [1750]

30th. We kept down Reedy Creek Maps: , and discover'd the tracks of about 20 Indians, that had gone up the Creek between the time we Camped last Night, & set of[f] this Morning. We suppose they made our Dogs so restless last Night. We Camped on Reedy Creek Maps: .

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30th. We caught two young Buffaloes, one of which we killed, & having cut and marked the other we turn'd him out.

[March] 31st [1750]

31st. We kept down Reedy Creek Maps: to Holston Maps: where we measured an Elm 25 feet round 3 feet from the Ground. we saw young Sheldrakes, we went down the River to the north Fork and up the north Fork about a quarter of a mile to a Fords, and then crossed it. In the Fork Holston Maps: and the North River Maps: are five Indian Houses built with loggs and cover'd with Bark, and there were abundance of Bones, some whole Pots and Pans, some broken, and many pieces of of [sic.] mats & Cloth. on the west Side of the North River Maps: is four Indian Houses such as before mentioned. we went four miles Below the North River Maps: and Camped on the Bank of Holstons Maps: ; opposite to a large Indian Fort.

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April 1750

April ye 1st

April ye 1st. The Sabbath. we saw Perch, Mullets, and Carp in plenty, and caught one of the large Sort of Cat Fish. I marked my Name, the day of the month, and date of the year on Several Beech Trees.


2d. we left Holston Maps: & travelled through small Hills till about Noon, when one of our Horses being choaked by eating Reeds too gredily we stopped having tavelled [sic.] 7 miles.


3d. Our horse being recover'd we travelled to the Rocky Ridge. I went up to the top, to Look for a Pass but found it so Rocky that I concluded not to Attempt it there. This Ridge may be known by Sight, at a distance. To the Eastward are many small Mountains, and a Buffaloe Road between them and the Ridge. The growth is Pine on the top and the Rocks look white at a distance. we went Seven miles this day.

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[April] 4th [1750]

4th. We kept under the Rocky Ridge crossing several small Branches to the head of Holly Creek. we saw many small Licks and plenty of Deer.

[April] 5th [1750]

5th. we went down Holly Creek. There is much Holly in the Low Grounds & some Laurel, and Ivy. About 3 in the afternoon the Ridge appeared less Stony, and we passed it, and camped on a Small Branch about a mile from the top. My Riding Horse choaked himself this Evening and I drenched him with Water to wash down the Reeds, and it answered the End

[April] 6th [1750]

6th. It proveing wet we did not move.

[April] 7th [1750]

7th. We rode 8 miles over broken Land. It Snowed most of the day. In the Evening our dogs caught a large He Bear, which before we could come up to shoot him, had wounded a Dog of mine, so that he could not Travel, and we carried him on Horseback, till he recovered.

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[April] 8th [1750]

8th. The Sabbath. Still Snow.

[April] 9th [1750]

9th. We travelled to a river, which I suppose to be that which the Hunters Call Clinches River Maps: from one Clinch a Hunter, who first found it. we marked Several Beeches on the East side. we could not find a ford Shallow eneugh to carry our Baggage over on our horses. Ambrose Powell Forded over on one horse, and we drove the others after him. We then made a Raft and carried over one Load of Baggage, but when the Raft was brought back, it was so heavy that it would not carry anything more dry.

[April] 10th [1750]

10th. We waded and carryed the remainder of our Baggage on our Shoulders at two turns over the River, which is about one hundred and thirty yards wide, we went on about five miles and Camped on a small Branch.

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[April] 11th [1750]

11th. Having travelled 5 miles to and over an High Mountain, we came to Turkey Creek Maps: which we kept down 4 Miles, It lies between two Ridges of Mountains that to the Eastward being the highest

12th. We kept down the Creek 2 miles further where it meets with a large Branch coming from the South West, and thence runs through the East Ridge making a very good Pass; and a large Buffaloe road goes from the Fork to the Creek over the west Ridge, which we took and found the Ascent and Descent tollerably easie. From this Mountain we rode four miles to Beargrass River. Small Ceder Trees are very plenty on the flat ground nigh the River and some Barberry Trees on the East side of the River. on the Banks is some Bear-grass. we kept up the River two miles & I found some Small pieces of Coal, and a great plenty of very good yellow Flint. The Water is the most transparent I Ever saw. it is about 70 yds. Wide..

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April 13th [1750]

April 13th. We went four miles to large Creek, which we called Cedar Creek, being a Branch of Bear-grass, and from thence Six miles to Cave gap the land being Levil. On the North side of the gap, is a large Spring, which falls very fast, and just above the Spring is a small Entrance, to a large Cave, Which the Spring runs through, and there is a constant Stream of Cool air issuing out. The Spring is Suffitient to turn a mill. just at the foot of the Hill is a Laurel Thicket, and the Spring Water runs through it. On the South side is a plain Indian Road. on the top of the Ridge are several Trees Marked with Crosses, others Blazed and several Figures painted on them. As I went down on the other Side, I soon came to some Laurel in the head of a Branch. A Beech Stands on the left hand, on which I cut my name. This Gap may be seen at a considerable distance; and

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there is no other, that I Know of, except one about two miles to the North of it, which does not appear to be so low as the other. The Mountain on the North Side of the Gap is very steep and Rocky. but on the South side it is not so. We called it Steep Ridge. At the foot of the hill on the North West side we came to a Branch, that made a great deal of flat Land. We kept down it 2 miles. Several other Branches Coming in to make it a large Creek, and we called it Flat Creek Maps: . We camped on the Bank where we found Very good Coal. I did not se any Lime Stone beyond this Ridge. we rode 13 miles this day

[April] 14th [1750]

14th. We kept down the Creek 5 miles Chiefly along the Indian Road

[April] 15 [1750]

15th. Easter Sunday. Being in bad grounds for our Horses we moved 7 miles along the Indian Road Maps: , to Clover Creek. Clover and Hop Vines are plenty here

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April 16th [1750]

April 16th. Rain. I made a Pair of Indian Shoes, those I brought out being bad

[April] 17th [1750]

17th. Still Rain. I went down the Creek a hunting and: found that it runs into a River about a mile below our Camp. This, which is Flat Creek Maps: and some others join'd, I Called Cumberland River

[April] 18th [1750]

18th. Still Cloudy. We kept down the Creek to the River, and down the River along, the Indian Road to where it Crossed. Indians have lived about this Ford some years ago. we kept on down the South side. after Riding 5 miles from our Camp We left the River: it being very crooked. In Rideing 3 miles we came on it again. it is about 60 or 70 yards wide. we Rode 8 miles this day

[April] 19 [1750]

19th. Wee left the River but in four miles we came on it again at the Mouth of Licking Creek, which we went up and down another. In the Fork of Licking Creek is a Lick much used By Buffaloes and many

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large Roads lead to it. This afternoon Ambrose Powell was bit by a Bear in his Knee. we rode 7 miles this day--

[April] 20 [1750]

20th. We kept down the Creek 2 miles to the River again. It appears not any wider here than at the mouth of Clover Creek, but much deeper. I thought it proper to Cross the River and began a bark Conoe.

[April] 21st [1750]

21st. We finished the Conoe and tryed her. About noon it began to thunder lighten hail and rain prodigiously and continued about 2 hours.--

[April] 22d [1750]

22d. The Sabbath. One of horses was found unable to walk this morning. I then Propose'd that with 2 of the Company I would proceed, and the other three Should Continue here till our return, which was agreed to, and Lots were drawn to determine who should go they all being desirous of it. Ambrose Powell, and Colby Chew were the fortunate Persons

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[April] 23d [1750]

23d. Haveing carried our baggage over in the Bark Conoe, and Swam our Horses, we all Crossed the River. Then Ambrose Powell, Colby Chew, and I departed Leaving the others to provide and salt some Bear, build an house and plant some Peach Stones and Corn. We travelled about 12 miles and encamped on Crooked Creek. The mountains are very sma11 hereabouts and here is a great deal of flat Land. We got through the Coal to day.

[April] 24th [1750]

24th. We kept on Westerly 18 miles, got Clear of the mountains and found the Land poor and the woods very Thick beyond them and Laurel and Ivy in & near the Branches. Our Horses suffered very much here for want of food. This day we Came on the fresh Track of 7 or 8 Indians, but could not overtake them.

[April] 25 [1750]

25th. We kept on West 5 miles, the Land continuing much Same, the Laurel rather growing worse, and the food scarcer. I got up a Tree on a Ridge and saw

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the Growth of the Land much the same as Far as my Sight could reach. I then concluded to return to the rest of my company. I kept on my track 1 mile then Turn'd Southerly & went to Cumberland River at the mouth of a water Course, that I named Rocky Creek.

[April] 26th [1750]

26th. The River is 150 yards wide and appears to be navigable from this place almost to the mouth of Clover Creek. Rocky Creek runs within 40 yards of the River Bank then turns off, and runs up the River Surrounding about 25 Acres of Land before it falls into the River. The Banks of the River and Creek are a sufficient Fence almost all the way. On the Lower side of the mouth of the Creek is an Ash mark'd T W a Red Oak A P a white Hiccory C. C. besides several Trees blazed Several ways with 3 Chops over Each blaze. we went up the North Side of the River 8 miles, and Camped on a Small Branch. A Bear Broke one of my Dogs forelegs

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[April] 27 [1750]

27th. We crossed Indian Creek and Went down Meadow Creek to the River. There Comes in another from the Southward as big as this we are on Below the mouth of this Creek, and above the mouth are the remains of several Indian Cabbins and amongst them a round Hill made by Art about 20 feet high and 60 over the Top. we went up the River, and Camped on the Bank.

[April] 28th [1750]

28th. We kept up the River to our Company whom we found all well, but the lame Horse was as bad as we left him, and another had been bit in the Nose by a Snake. I rub'd the wounds with Bears oil, and gave him a drench of the same and another of the decoction of Rattle Snake root some time after. The People I left had built an House 12 by 8, clear'd and broke up some ground, & planted Corn, and Peach Stones. They also had Killed several Bears and cured the Meat. This day Colby Chew and his Horse fell down the Bank. I Bled and gave him Volatile drops, & he soon recover'd.

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[April] 29th [1750]

29th. The Sabbath. The bitten Horse is better. 3 Quarters of A mile below the House is a Pond in the low Ground of the River a Quarter of a mile in Length and 200 yds wide much frequented by Fowl.

[April] 30th [1750]

30th. I blaz'd a way from our House to the River. On the other side of the River is a large Elm cut down and barked about 20 feet and another Standing just by it with the Bark cut around at the root and about 15 feet above. About 200 yards below there is a white Hiccory Barked about 15 feet. The depth of water here, when the lowest that I have seen it, is about 7 or 8 feet, the Bottom of the River Sandy, ye Banks very high, & the Current very Slow. The bitten Horse being much mended we set off and left the lame one. He is white, branded on the near Buttock with a swivil Stirrups Iron, and is old. We left the River and having crossed Several Hills and Branches Camped in a Valley North from the House.

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May, 1750

May ye 1st, 1750

May the 1st 1750. Another Horse being bit I applyed Bears Oil as before mention'd. we got to Powells River in the afternoon and went down it along an Indian Road much frequented, to the mouth of a Creek on the West side of the River, where we camped. The Indian Road goes up the Creek, and I think it is that which goes through Cave Gap.

[May] 2d [1750]

2d. We kept down the River. At the mouth of a Creek that comes in on the East side is a Lick, and I believe there was a hundred Buffaloes at it. About 2 oClock we had a Shower of rain. we camped on the River, which is very crooked.

[May] 3d [1750]

3d. We crossed a narrow Neck of Land, came on the River again and kept down it to an Indian Camp, that had been built this Spring, and in it we took up our Quarters. It began to rain about Noon and continued till Night.

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[May] 4th [1750]

4th. We crossed a narrow Neck of Land and came on the River again, which we kept down till it turn'd to the Westward, we then left it, and went up a Creek, which we Called Colby's Creek. The River is about 50 yards over where we left it.

[May] 5th [1750]

5th. We got to Tomlinsons River, which is about the size of Powells River, and I cut my name on a Beech, that Stands on the North Side of the River. Here is plenty of Coal in the South Bank opposite to our Camp.

[May] 6th [1750]

6th. The Sabbath. I saw Goslings, which shows that wild Geese stay here all the year. Ambrose Powell had the misfortune to sprain his well knee.

[May] 7th [1750]

7th. We went down Tomlinsons River the Land being very broken and our way embarrassed by Trees, that had been blown down about 2 years ago.

[May] 8th [1750]

8th. We went up a Creek on the North Side of the River.

[May] 9th [1750]

9th. We got to Lawlesses River which is much like the others. The Mountains here are very Steep and on Some

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of them there is Laurel and Ivy. The tops of the Mountains are very Rocky and some part of the Rocks seem to be composed of Shells, Nuts and many other Substances petrified and cemented together With a kind of Flint. Wee left the River and after travelling some Miles we got among Trees that had been Blown down about 2 years, and Were obliged to go down a Creek to the River again, the Small Branches and mountains being impassable.

[May] 10th [1750]

l0th. We Staid on the River, and dressed an Elk's skin to make Indian Shoes, most of ours being quite worn out.

[May] 11th [1750]

11th. We left the River, found the mountains very bad, and got to a Rock by the the side of a Creek Sufficient to Shelter 200 men from Rain. Finding it so convenient we concluded to stay and put our Elk's skins in order for shoes and make them.

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[May] 12th [1750]

12th. Under the Rock is a Soft kind of Stone almost like Allum in tast below it A Layer of Coal about 12 Inches think and white Clay under that. I called the Run Allum Creek. I have observed Several mornings past, that the Trees begin to drop just before day & continue dripping till almost sun rise, as if it rain'd slowly. we had some rain this day.

[May] 13th [1750]

13th. The Sabbath.

[May] 14th [1750]

14th. When our Elk's Skin was prepared we had lost every Awl that we brought out, and I made one with the shank of an old Fishing hook, the other People made two of horse Shoe Nailes, and with these we made our Shoes or Moccosons, 14 We wrote several of our Names with Coal under the Rock, & I wrote our names the time of our comeing and leaving this place on paper and stuck it to the Rock with Morter, and then set off. We crossed Hughes's River and Lay on a large Branch of it.

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There was no dew this morning but a shower of Rain about 6 oClock. The River is about 50 yards wide.

[May] 15th [1750]

15th. Laurel and Ivy encrease upon us as we go up the Branch. About noon it began to rain & we took up our Quarters in a Valley between very Steep Hills.

[May] 16 [1750]

16. We crossed Several Ridges and Branches. About two in the afternoon I was taken with a Violent Pain in my Hip.

[May] 17th [1750]

17th. Laurel and Ivy are very plenty and the Hills still very steep. The Woods have been Burnt some years past, and are now very thick, the Timber being almost all kill'd. We camped on a Branch of Naked Creek. The Pain in my Hip is something asswaged.

[May] 18th [1750]

18th. We went up Naked Creek to the head and had a plain Buffaloe Road most of the way. From thence we proceeded down Wolf Creek and on it we encamped.

[May] 19 [1750]

19. We kept down ye Creek to Hunting Creek Maps: , which we Crossed & left. It rained Most of the afternoon.

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[May] 20th [1750]

20th. The Sabbath. It began to rain about Noon and continued till next day.

[May] 21 [1750]

21st. It left off raining about 8. we crossed several Ridges and small Branches & camped on a Branch of Hunting Creek Maps: . in the Evening it rained very hard.

[May] 22d [1750]

22d. We went down the Branch to Hunting Creek Maps: & kept it to Milley's River Maps: .

[May] 23rd [1750]

23rd. Wee attempted to go down the River but could not. We then Crossed Hunting Creek Maps: and attempted to go up the River but could not. it being Very deep We began a Bark Conoe. The River is about 90 or 100 yds wide. I Blazed Several Trees in the Fork and marked T W on a Sycomore Tree 40 feet round. It has a large Hole on the N: W: side about 20 feet from the Ground and is divided into 3 Branches just by the hole, and it stands about 80 yards above the Mouth of Hunting Creek Maps: .

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[May] 24th [1750]

24th. We finished the Conoe and crossed the River about noon, and I marked a Sycomore 30 feet round and several Beeches on the North side of the River opposite to the mouth of the Creek. Game is Very Scarce hereabouts.

[May] 25th [1750]

25th. It began to rain before day and continued till about noon. We travelled about 4 miles on a Ridge, and camped on a small Branch.

[May] 26th [1750]

26th. We kept down the Branch almost to the River, and up a Creek, and then along a Ridge till our Dogs roused a large Buck Elk, which We followed Down to a Creek. He kill'd Ambrose Powell's Dog in the Chase, and we named the Run Tumbler's Creek the Dog being of that Name.

[May] 27 [1750]

27th. The Sabbath.

[May] 28th [1750]

28th. Cloudy. We could not get our Horses till almost Night, when we went down the Branch. We lay on to the main Creek Maps: , and turn'd up it.

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[May] 29 [1750]

29th. Wee proceeded up the Creek 7 miles, and then took a North Branch & went up it 5 Miles and then we encamped on it.

[May] 30th [1750]

30th. We went to the head of the Branch we Lay on 12 miles. A shower of Rain fell this day. The Woods are burnt fresh about here and are the only fresh burnt Woods we have seen these Six Weeks.

[May] 31st [1750]

31st. We crossed 2 Mountains and camped just by a Wolfs Den. They were very impudent and after they had been twice shot at, they kept howling about the Camp. It rained till Noon this day.

June 1750

June ye 1st [1750]

June ye 1st. We found the Wolfs Den and caught 4 of the young ones. It rained this morning. we Went up a Creek crossed a mountain and went through a Gap, and then, camped on the head of A Branch.

[June] 2d [1750]

2d. We went down the Branch to A River 70 yards wide, which I Called Fredericks River Maps: . we kept

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up it half a mile to a Ford, where we crossed and proceeded up on the North Side 3 miles. It rained most of the afternoon. Elks are Very Plenty on this River.

[June] 3rd [1750]

3rd. Whit-Sunday. It Rained most of the day.

[June] 4th [1750]

4th. I blazed Several Trees four ways on the out side of the low Grounds by a Buffaloe Road, and mark'ed My Name on Several Beech Trees. Also I marked Some by the River side just below a mossing place with an Island in it. We left the River about 10 oClock & got to Falling Creek Maps: , and went up it till 5 in the Afternoon when a very black Cloud appearing we turn'd out our Horses got tent Poles up, and were just stretching a Tent, when it began to rain and hail, and was succeeded by a violent Wind, which Blew down our Tent & a great Many Trees about it, Several large ones within 30 yds of the Tent, we all Left the place in confusion and ran different ways for shelter. After the Storm was over we met at the Tent, and found all safe.

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[June] 5th [1750]

5th. There was a violent Shower of Rain before day. This morning we went up the Creek about 3 miles, and were thus obliged to leave it, the Timber being so blown down, that we could not get through. After we left the Creek we kept on a Ridge 4 miles then turn'd down to the head of A Branch, and it began to rain and continued raining very hard till Night.

[June] 6th [1750]

6th. We went down the Branch till it became a large Creek. It runs very Swift, falling more than any of the Branches we have been on of late. I called it Rapid Creek. After we had gone 8 miles we could not ford, and we Camped in the low Ground. There is great Sign of Indians on this Creek.

[June] 7th [1750]

7th. The Creek being fordable we Crossed it & kept down 12 miles to a River about 100 yards over, Which We called Louisa River Maps: . The Creek is about 30 yards wide, & part of ye River breaks into ye Creek making an Island on which We Camped.

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[June] 8th [1750]

8th. The River is so deep we Cannot ford it and as it is falling we conclude to stay & hunt. In the after -noon Mr. Powell and my Self was a hunting about a mile & half from the Camp, and heard a gun just below us on the other side of the River, and as none of our People could cross I was in hopes of geting some direction from the Person, but could not find him.

[June] 9th [1750]

9th. We crossed the River & went down it to the mouth of of a Creek & up the Creek to the head and over a Ridge into a steep Valley and Camped.

[June] 10th [1750]

10th. Trinity Sunday. Being in very bad Ground for our Horses we concluded to move. we were very much hindered by the Trees, that were blown down on Monday last. we camped on a small Branch.

[June] 11th [1750]

11th. It rain'd violently the Latter part of the night & till 9 oClock. The Branch is impassable at present. We lost a Tomohawk & a cann by the Flood.

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[June] 12th [1750]

12th. The Water being low we went down the Branch to a large Creek, & up the Creek. Many of the Trees in the Branches are Wash'd up by the Roots and others barked by the old trees, that went down ye Stream. The Roots in the Bottom of the Runs are Barked by the Stones.

[June] 13th [1750]

13th. We are much hindered by the Gust. & a shower of Rain about Noon. Game is Very scarce here, and the mountains very bad the tops of the Ridges being so covered with Ivy and the sides so steep and stony, that we were obliged to cut our way through with our Tomohawks.

[June] 14th [1750]

14th. The Woods are still bad & Game scarce. It rain'd to day about Noon & we Camped on the top of A Ridge.

[June] 15th [1750]

15th. We got on a large Creek where Turkey are plen -ty and some Elks. we went a hunting & killed 3 Turkeys.

[June] 16th [1750]

16th. Hunted & killed 3 Bears & some Turkeys.

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[June] 17th [1750]

17th. The Sabbath. We kill'd a large Buck Elk.

[June] 18th [1750]

18th. having prepared a good stock of meat, we left the Creek crossing several Branches and Ridges. the Woods still continuing bad the Weather hot & our Horses so far Spent, that we are all obliged to walk.

[June] 19th [1750]

June 19th. We got to Laurel Creek Maps: early this morning, and met so impudent A Bull Buffaloe that we were obliged to shoot him, or he would have been amongst us. we then went up the Creek six miles, thence up a North Branch of it to the Head, and attempted to Cross a mountain, but it proved so high and difficult, that we were oblig'd to Camp on the side of it. This Ridge is nigh the eastern edge of the Coal Land.

[June] 20th [1750]

20th. We got to the top of the Mountain and Could discover a flat to the South & South East. we went down from the Ridge to a Branch and down

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the Branch to Laurel Creek Maps: not far from where we left it yesterday, & camped. my rideing Horse was bit by a Snake this day, and having no Bears Oil I rub'd the wounds with a piece of fat meat, which had the desired effect.

[June] 21st [1750]

21st. We found the Level Nigh the Creek so full of Laurel that we were obliged to go up a Small Branch, and from the head of that to the Creek again, and found it good travelling a Small distance from the Creek. we Camped on the Creek. Deer are Very scarce on the Coal Land, I having seen but 4, since the 30th of April.

[June] 22nd [1750]

22nd. We kept up to the head of the Creek the Land being Leveller than we have lately seen, and here are some large Savanna's. many of the Branches are full of Laurel and Ivy. Deer and Bears are plenty.

[June] 23rd [1750]

23rd. Land continues level with Laurel and Ivy & we got to a large Creek with very high & steep Banks full of Rocks, which I call'd Clifty Creek, the Rocks are 100 feet perpendiculer in some Places.

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[June] 24th [1750]

24th. The Sabbath.

[June] 25th [1750]

25th. We Crossed Clifty Creek. Here is a little Coal and the Land still flat.

[June] 26th [1750]

26th. We crossed a Creek, that we called Dismal Creek Maps: the Banks being the worst and the Laurel the thickest I have seen. The Land is Mountainous on the East Side of the Dismal Creek Maps: , and the Laurels end in a few miles. We camped on a Small Branch.

[June] 27th [1750]

27th. The Land is very high & we Crossed several Ridges and camped on a small Branch. it rained about Noon and continued till the next day.

[June] 28th [1750]

28th. It continued raining till Noon, and we set off as soon as it ceased and went down the Branch we lay on to the New River Maps: , just below the Mouth of Green Bryer Maps: . Powell, Tomlinson and my self striped, and went into the New River Maps: to try, if we could wade over at any place. After some time having found a place we return'd to the others and took such things as

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would take damage by Water on our Shoulders, and waded over Leading our Horses. The Bottom is very uneven, the Rocks very slippery and the Current very Strong most of the way. The River is nigh 500 yards over. We Camped in the low Ground opposite to the mouth of Green Bryer Maps: .

[June] 29th [1750]

29th. We kept up Green Bryer Maps: . It being a wet day we went only 2 Miles. and Camped on the North side.

[June] 30th [1750]

30th. We went 7 miles up the River, which is very crooked.

July 1750

July ye 1st [1750]

July ye 1st. The Sabbath. Our salt being almost spent We travelled 10 miles sometimes on the River, and at other times some distance from it.

[July] 2d [1750]

2d. We kept up the River the chief part of this day and we travelled about 10 miles.

[July] 3d [1750]

3d. We went Up the River 10 miles to day.

[July] 5th [1750]

4th. We went up the River 10 miles through very bad woods.

[July] 5th [1750]

5th. The way growing worse, we travelled 9 miles only.

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[July] 6th [1750]

6th. We left the River. The low grounds on it are of very little Value. but on the Branches are very good, and there is a great deal of it, and the high land is very good in many places. We got on a large Creek called Anthony's Creek, which affords a great deal of Very good Land, and it is chiefly-bought. we kept up the Creek 4 miles & Camped. This Creek took it Name from an Indian, Called John Anthony, that frequently hunts in these Woods. There are some inhabitants on the Branches of Green Bryer Maps: , but we missed their Plantations.

[July] 7th [1750]

7th. We kept up the Creek, and about Noon 5 men overtok us & inform'd us we were only 8 miles from the inhabitants on a Branch of James River Maps: called Jackson's River Maps: . We exchanged some Tallow for meal & parted. We Camped on a Creek nigh the top of the Allega -ny Ridge Which We named Ragged Creek.

[July] 8th [1750]

8th. Having Shaved, Shirted, & made new shoes we left our Useless Raggs at ye Camp & got to Walker Johnston's about Noon.

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We Moved over to Robert Armstrong's in the Afternoon & staid there all Night. The People here are very hospitable and would be better able to support Travellers was it not for the great number of Indian Warriers that frequently take what they want from them, much to Their prejudice.

[July] 9th [1750]

9th. We went to the hot Springs Maps: & found Six Invalides there. The Spring Water is very Clear & warmer than new Milk, and there is a spring of cold water within 20 feet of the Warm one. I left one of my Company this day.

[July] 10th [1750]

l0th. Having a Path We rode 20 miles & lodged at Captain Jemyson's below the Panther Gap. Two of my Company went to a Smith to get their Horses Shod.

[July] 11th [1750]

11th. Our Way mending We travelled 30 miles to Augusta Court House, where I found Mr. Andrew Johnston, the first of my acquaintance I had seen, since the 26 day of March.

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[July] 12th [1750]

12th. Mr. Johnston lent me a fresh Hose and sent my Horses to Mr. David Stewards who was so kind as to give them Pastureage. About 8 oClock I set off leaving all my Company. It began to rain about 2 in the Afternoon & I lodged at Captain David Lewis's about 34 miles from Augusta Court House.

[July] 13th [1750]

13th. I got Home about Noon.

We kill'd in the Journey 13 Buffaloes, 8 Elks, 53 Bears, 20 Deer, 4 Wild Geese, about 150 Turkeys, beside Small Game. We might have kill'd three times as much meat, if we had wanted it.